KKV.7 Measure satisfaction

Chapter 5. Identifying services elements that influence satisfaction, satisfaction measurement

Nowadays one of the biggest challenges of the business world is continuously increasing consumer demands and assessing the quality of services is becoming increasingly critical. (consumers focused on experiences, multitude of options on offer page and service, increased temporal factor value)

Therefore, the most important criterion of success in the market is to provide the best service and maintain quality at a high level, which leads to customer loyalty(Zeithaml and Bitner 1996, in.: Hetesi, 2003).

Pe cât de frecventă este în limbajul de zi cu zi utilizarea expresiei de satisfacție a consumatorului, cu atât mai dificilă este definirea concretă a noțiunii. Indiferent de rolul extrem de important pe care îl ocupă în marketing ,,satisfacția consumatorului”, nu există un punct de vedere unitar pentru definirea noțiunii. În cazul nostru totuși este necesar stabilirea unui reper pentru delimitarea domeniului studiat. 

The phrase ,,to be satisfied’’ in everyday language means appreciation for the value of experiences or feelings, where satisfaction usually has a positive meaning and dissatisfaction a negativeone(Korte 1995, in.: Szántó 2003)

Satisfaction is a mental state of consumers which is formed as appropriate or inappropriate reward for the sacrifice brought by them. (Howard, 1977 in.:Szántó, 2003)

Consumer satisfaction is an emotional response to the experiences related to product or purchased service.(Westbrook - Reilly, 1983. in.:Szántó, 2003)

Satisfaction is the result of use and purchase, based on the comparison ,,reward-cost’’ of buyer related to the acquisition, taking into account the probable consequences. (Churchill - Surprenant, 1982 in.: Hofmeister, Simon, Sajtos, 2003)

Among the various definitions relating to satisfaction, we can find common elements as well.

These can be identified as follows:

  • Customer satisfaction, as answer(emotional or mental)
  • response refers to a particular focus(expectations, product, consumer experiences, etc.)
  • response occurs in a certain time(subsequent selection). (Szántó,2003)

5.1. Proccess of customer satisfaction

Forming customer satisfaction arises as the result of a process during which the consumer is satisfied with the way or manner in which his expectations have been met or his expectations related to service during the delivery process were met. Customer expectations is also an area whose level decreases  the appropriate service, satisfaction,  while the upper level is the ideal level.

By comparing the actual service with the desired one, the consumer can get three different results. These results are: satisfaction, dissatisfaction and indifference.

Consumers, based on their ,,satisfaction” can be classified in three groups.

Satisfied client:He benefited from expected services, thus he is pleased and appreciates positively the provider.

Dissatisfied client, dissapointed:He benefited from fewer or lower quality than what he expected, so he leaves with negative impressions and experiences. He can complain on the spot or he can send his negative experiences through advertising, word of mouth, he can ruin the image of the provider.

Impressed client:He is absolutely a satisfied consumer. Providers aim is to create such a level of consumer satisfaction and satisfaction analysis is an important and useful tool in achieving this goal. The consumer has received more services or higher quality service from the provider company, so that he can honour that with loyalty. He can spread through advertising, word of mouth his positive experiences and increase the company image, he can propagate its reputation.

In terms of service, satisfaction measurement is more difficult to palpate, due to service characteristics:intangibility, inseparability, perishability and fluctuation(Kotler, 1984, in.: Rekettye- Szűcs, 2002). 

5.2. Relation between quality service and ,,satisfaction’’, possible alternatives to measure satisfaction

Defining quality service is not a simple task, because, reported to parametric nature of the products, services - due to the above particularities–it shows fundamental differences.

In the area of consumer satisfaction it can already start looking information and may extend over the entire phase of service use. In creating consumer satisfaction a crucial importance have personal relationships, which they maintain with the provider.

According to the generally accepted concept, if the quality of perceived service is poor to the desired quality, the consumer will be dissatisfied, while if it exceeds the consumer will be satisfied.

Parasuraman, Zeithaml and Berry (1988)have assumed that the ratio of expected performance and the one perceived defines the image formed related to the quality. The above-mentioned authors have defined 10 factors called SERVQUAL model, which they framed in the so-called fundamental and extrafactors.

Fundamental factors: Those factors, which prevent customer satisfaction when they are not met.

Extra factors: Those factors, which increase satisfaction. 

Fundamental factors:

  1. Reliability: does the consumer receives what was promised to him(eg. in marketing communications)
  2. Skills: professional experience of staff
  3. Accessibility: simplicity of staff contact
  4. Security: is  service safe financially, physically
  5. Tangibility: are the means, facilities, service conditions appropriate

Extra factors:

  1. Responsiveness: willingness to meet customer requirements
  2. Courtesy: is  service personnel polite
  3. Communication: how are staff skilss on providing information
  4. Reputation: company reputation, is it a reliable company
  5. Knowing the client: what does the company do to meet individual consumer needs

Berry's model (1985) is also based on the difference between desired performance and perceived. In this model, reference points are given by certain parameters, on which one can determine the quality.

These factors are:

  1. Reliability
  2. Safety
  3. Accessibility
  4. Communication
  5. Empathy
  6. Tangible factors
  7. Reliability
  8. Capacity of eaction
  9. Skill
  10. Courtesy

Regarding the quality of service, of several approaches, RATER type must be mentioned(Tenner and De Toro 1996, .: in Papp - Rózsa 2003), which is one of the most commonly used models for determining the quality of services.


  • Reliability: ability to perform the promised service, accurate and reliable.
  • Assurance: courtesy and professional training of employees.
  • Tangible: external aspect, facilities, staff appearance.
  • Empathy: attention and individualized care.
  • Responsiveness: willingness to assist buyers and offer prompt services.

Example Questionnaire for Customer Satisfaction Assessment:

How did you find about our hotel?

  1. Media advert
  2. Have visited you before
  3. At recommendation
  4. Found the Villapark web
  5. Advert on the Internet
  6. From a intermediate web page for accommodation
  7. Other:

Why did you choose our hotel?

  1. Nearby
  2. Type of accomodation
  3. Service pro family
  4. Price/quality ratio
  5. Natural values
  6. Aquatic park
  7. Restaurant
  8. Reputation
  9. Other:

Have you visited us before?

  1. Yes
  2. No

If yes, how many times? ………


How pleased were you with accomodation?

Cleanleness (not too clean-very clean)
1   2   3   4   5 

Comfort (no comfort-cosy)
1   2   3   4   5                     

Equiped pro family (poorly endowed - excellent)
1   2   3   4   5 


Food quality (weak – excellent)
1   2   3   4   5           

Range of food and beverages (poor – rich)
1   2   3   4   5 

Service level (weak - very good)
1   2   3   4   5            


Animation programs (boring – very interesting)
1   2   3   4   5 

Staff animation training (unprepared - prepared)
1   2   3   4   5 

Reception–How pleased are you with the reception service?

Provide information (poor- excellent)
1   2   3   4   5 

Training, skills (poor-excellent)
1   2   3   4   5

Courtesy (not kind-very kind)
1   2   3   4   5 

Arrival date:

Departure date:

Satisfaction, Fundamental factors, Extra factors, Satisfied client, Dissatified client, Dissapointed client, Impressed client, SERVQUAL type, RATER type, Satisfaction analysis
Verifying questions: